ELT and Teacher Education in A Changing World: Reflections on the Legacy of Braj Kachru Ali Fuad Selvi

  1. What are the things we have learnt from the topic presented?

The topic is “ELT and teacher education in a changing world”. when talking about changing world, Ali, the presenter, tent to adapt the idea coming from the expert of Sociolinguistics called Braj Kachru. Kachru conceived the idea of three concentric circles of the language.

The inner circle represents the traditional culture and linguistic bases of English: The United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, anglophone Canada, and some of the Caribbean territories. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as 380 million, of whom some 120 million are outside the United States.

Next comes the outer circle, which includes countries where English is not the native tongue, but is important for historical reasons (as a result of colonization) and plays a part in the nation’s institutions, either as an official language or otherwise. This circle includes India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non-Anglophone South Africa and Canada, etc. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million.

Finally, the expanding circle encompasses those countries where English plays no historical or governmental role, but where it is nevertheless widely used as a foreign language or lingua franca. This includes much of the rest of the world’s population: China, Russia, Japan, most of Europe, Korea, Egypt, Indonesia, etc. The total in this expanding circle is the most difficult to estimate, especially because English may be employed for specific, limited purposes, usually business English. The estimates of these users range from 100 million to one billion.

Understanding three concentric circles aims to unpack English language learning, teaching and teacher education practices. Ali suggested that rethinking and reconceptualizing those English language teaching and learning are very necessary. What should be rethought deal with pedagogy, materials, assessment, culture and identity, curriculum design and development, and teacher education. In addition, Ali also criticized the terms “native teacher and non-native teacher” because they are quite problematic. What is necessary here is promoting employment for “competent” teachers regardless of ideologically-infused, value-laden terms such as native or non-native. Native is not always better than non-native because English is in the three concentric circles so that the appropriate teacher must come from appropriate circle. Language is not merely language, but there are many things inside it to teach, among of them are culture, belief, knowledge, surroundings, and so on.

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Critical Reading 1

Empowering English Teachers to Grapple with Errors in Grammar

Caroline Mei Lin Ho
mlcho [at] nie.edu.sg
Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 3, March 2003

Errors are devices the students use in order to learn. Students’ errors made in grammar are systematic and classifiable. However, there is a need for students to recognize the significance of errors which occur in their writing, to fully cope and understand the nature of the errors they have made.

The 3-step approach designed by Caroline Mei Lin Ho is adopted to enable identification and analysis of students’ errors. The approach offers an opportunity of exploiting the grammars students have internalized as a way of teaching the grammar of English through the examination of error type, frequency and patterns in problems which surface from students’ own work. Exploring problems in grammar in relation to students’ writing essentially reinforces the importance of studying grammar not in isolation but in its location (in use and in its creation of contextual meanings) which is ultimately more needs-oriented, problem-focused and learner-centered.
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Contoh teks procedure


250 grams of white rice
100 grams of shrimp were, peeled
5 pieces of beef meatballs, sliced ​​round
50 grams of peas
2 leeks thinly sliced
1 tablespoon chili sauce
1/4 red tomatoes, sliced
2 tablespoons oil for sauteing
1 tablespoon soy sauce
1 tbsp soy sauce
1 tsp ang ciu
Complement: egg and prawn crackers

2 cloves garlic
3 grains of red onion
1 piece of red pepper
1/4 tsp pepper
salt to taste

1. Heat oil, saute ground spices until fragrant, put green onion, and
tomatoes and stir well. Add shrimp and meatballs and stir well.
2. Enter the white rice, add sauce, soy sauce, soy sauce, and ang ciu,
stir well, remove from heat.
3. Serve warm with a sprinkling of fried onions, shrimp crackers, egg,
and pickled cucumber.



Contoh teks review

You’re as old as you feel — unless you’re James Bond. Then you’re both ageless and timeless.

But as Skyfall, the newest adventure of 007, shows, even the world’s most dangerous secret agent needs to keep up with the times. And so director Sam Mendes and a trio of writers bring Daniel Craig’s James Bond squarely into a 21st century in which desk jockeys and bottom-liners call the shots.

So it is at MI6, the British intelligence agency for whom Bond works. There’s a new chairman of intelligence and security, Gareth Mallory (Ralph Fiennes), and he’s unhappy at an operation that goes south, exposing all of NATO’s undercover agents to exposure when a list of their identities is stolen. He tells M (Judi Dench) that her time is past and that she’s due for retirement. She convinces him to let her stay on, at least until she reaches retirement age in a couple of months.

Mallory also makes noises about Bond himself as an antique the agency can no longer afford. Though Bond disagrees, Mallory assures him that, in fact, human intelligence gathering (in other words, actual spies) is a thing of the past. Electronic surveillance and intelligence is the future, so Bond should start picking out his retirement home as well.

Bond, however, has a score to settle.


Contoh teks report

The polar bear

The polar bear is a very big white bear. We call it the polar bear because it lives inside the Arctic Circle near the North Pole. There are no polar bears at the South Pole.

The polar bears live at the North Pole. There is only snow, ice, and water. There is not any land.

These bears are three meters long, and weigh 450 kilos. They can stand up on their back legs because they have very wide feet. They can use their front legs like arms.

The polar bears can swim very well. They can swim 120 kilometers out into the water. They catch fish and sea animals for food. They go into the sea when they are afraid.

People like to kill the polar bears for their beautiful white coats. The governments of Canada, the United States, and Russia say that no one can kill polar bears now. They do not want all of these beautiful animals to die.

Contoh teks recount

Short Biography of Kurt Cobain
Kurt Cobain was the lead singer and the guitarist of an American grunge band called Nirvana. He was born in Aberdeen, Washington, on 20 February 1967.

When Cobain was eight years old, his parents divorced. This divorce gave bad impact on his life. At his fourteenth birthday, his uncle gave him a guitar as the gift. Since that, he began work on his own songs. He and his friend, Krist Novoselic usually practiced music in the upstairs room of a salon own by Novoselic`s mother.

In 1986, they formed a grunge band named Nirvana. Cobain was the vocalist as well as guitarist and Novoselic played bass. They released their first album titled Bleach in 1989. In 1991 they released the second album, Never mind. It was their greatest album which made them a kind of popular superstar. This album included popular songs like Smell Like Teen Spirit, About A Girl, Come as You Are, In Bloom and Lithium.

However the popularity was intimidating to Cobain. He began addicted to drugs and became worse, even he overdosed on heroin. On March 30, he went to a rehabilitation but ran away. He was reported missing for a few days. Then on 8 April 1994, he was found dead in his house in Lake Washington. He had shot himself.

Contoh teks news item

Russian woman keeps hold of dead husband’s body

Russian authorities say a woman with five children kept her husband’s body in their apartment for almost three years after his death.

Prosecutors in the central Yaroslavl region said the unidentified woman, described as a devout Pentecostal Christian with a psychiatric record, was so distraught when her husband died of natural causes in 2009 that she believed he “was bound to resurrect.”

An investigation was opened after the body was found in a dumpster in a plastic bag in July.

The prosecutors’ office said Monday that the woman kept the cadaver in a bed in a room of her apartment and asked her children to talk to it and feed it.

The office says two children decided to dispose of the body when the family moved to another apartment.

Contoh teks narrative

A Boy and A Girl

boy and a girl were playing together. The boy had a collection of marbles. The girl had some sweets with her.The boy told the girl that he will give her all his marbles in exchange for her sweets. The girl agreed. The boy kept the biggest and the most beautiful marble aside and gave the rest to the girl. The girl gave him all her sweets as she had promised.

That night, the girl slept peacefully. But the boy couldn’t sleep as he kept wondering if the girl had hidden some sweets from him the way he had hidden his best marble.A young man asked Socrates, an ancient Greek philosopher, the secret of Success. Socrates told the young man to meet him near the river the next morning. They met.

Socrates asked the young man to walk with him toward the river.When the water got up to their necks, Socrates took the young man by surprise and ducked him into the water. The man struggled to get out but Socrates was strong and kept him under water until he started turning blue.

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Contoh letter dan e-mail

Dear Mr. Prentiss,


According to our records, you have an unpaid balance with us of $8,256.23 for the billing period June 15 to July 14, 2010. As this may be an oversight on your part, we urge you to settle your account with us by July 30 in order to avoid the inconvenience of legal action being taken against you. If you have any questions, you may contact Dean Driver at 025-314-5302.

If you have already paid your overdue balance, please ignore this notice.

Thank you for your prompt action on this matter.

Respectfully yours,

Branson Smith

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Contoh teks ekposition

Why is It Important to Choose the Accredited School?
Most of teenagers need to go to school and there are a lot of schools over there. Nowadays, schools grow to offer plenty of choice; private and state ones. However it is a hard choice since there are many factors which need to be considered before making the selection. Some will be influenced by friends; because some friends got to certain school than we go to there too. Some prefer to choose certain school because of the closer distance. In fact, the primary decisive matter for selecting school is whether the school has been accredited or not.
Why is important to choose an accredited school? Well, accredited schools have an edge over the unaccredited schools. This label of Accredited School has an impact in employment opportunities. As result, if there are two or more students with similar qualifications, the students  who comes from the accredited school will have an edge over the other candidate. Student from an accredited school has more open door than student with an accredited one.
Many students select certain school depending more on short term factors like friend influence and short distance from home. It is not bad since commuting actually needs much cost. Choosing school which is closer to home will save time, energy and money. However if that school is not accredited, the time and money spent along studying seems to be waste in the long term because it could become a limiting factor in gaining future opportunities.
Accredited school is not the only factor which will drive student’s success. Personality and characterization are very important too. However a student with good personality who comes from an accredited school is better than the others.